Since I have ended up writing this book by mere chance, having myself not the foggiest idea about gnomonics, astronomy, Egyptology and many other things that will appear on the following pages, this enterprise could only be undertaken with the help of many scholars who are knowledgeable in these fields. Thanks to their interest and help, the many questions I had could be answered, and I am not only very grateful for their professional support, but also that they have been so generous with their time! Needless to say that all the mistakes and errors that my text and maps may still contain are exclusively my own.
As soon as a first draft of this manuscript was written, I discussed my thoughts with some scholars in telephone-conservations, to others I sent chapters of my text or the entire manuscript, asking them for advice and comments. My thanks are due to Luigia Attilia, Nicola Barbagli, Jessica Bartz, Clara Bencivenga Trillmich, Günther Bergmann, John Bodel, Hugo Brandenburg, Frederick E. Brenk, Giuseppina Capriotti Vittozzi, Edward Champlin, Amanda Claridge, Filippo Coarelli, Lucos Cozza, Donatella De Rita, Sylvia Diebner, Babett Edelmann-Singer, Rafed El-Sayed, Helmut Engelmann, Giorgio Filippi, Karl-Hermann Freyby, Klaus Stefan Freyberger, Bernard Frischer, Michaela Fuchs, Karl Galinsky, Enrico Gallocchio, Valentino Gasparini, Angelo Geißen, Laura Gigli, Hans Rupprecht Goette, Hansgerd Hellenkemper, Günther Hölbl, Tonio Hölscher, Vincent Jolivet, Valentin Kockel, Dirk Kocks, Konstantin Lakomy, Susanna Le Pera, Paolo Liverani, Gabriella Marchetti, Klaus Maresch, Demetrios Michaelides, Eric M. Moormann, Friederike Naumann-Steckner, Zahra Newby, Clementina Panella, Stefan Pfeiffer, Nicholas Purcell, Friedrich Rakob, Luca Sasso D'Elia, Rolf Michael Schneider, Albert Schröder, Franz Xaver Schütz, Rose Mary Sheldon, Giuseppe Simonetta, Helga Stöcker, Eberhard Thomas, Renate Thomas, R.R.R. Smith, Mario Torelli, Walter Trillmich, Miguel John Versluys, Esther Wegener, Helen Whitehouse, T.P. Wiseman, Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn and Raimund Wünsche, for discussing with me, either now, or in some cases many years ago, the ideas that are presented in this text for the first time, and for generously providing me with references, publications and links that are discussed in this study. Hans Rupprecht Goette, in addition to this, has kindly provided me with a photo that he has taken of the Eudoxos relief in the Museum of Fine Arts at Budapest (here Fig. 12.1), has shared the results of his relevant research with me, and has granted me the permission to publish this photo.
Especially inspiring for the here published studies were our many meetings with our good friends Laura Gigli, Giuseppe Simonetta and Gabriella Marchetti in Rome, who generously shared their recent findings on the Palazzo and Collegio Capranica with us, both of which they are in the course of studying. L. Gigli even took photographs of the famous inscription at the Palazzo della Sapienza ("Initium Sapientiae Timor Domini"; here Fig. 12.6) on my request, and generously allowed us to publish them in this book.
Next I wish to mention Michaela Fuchs in Munich, whom I thank for the many discussions on the subjects published here, in addition to that, she was so kind as to provide me with CD ROMs, comprising the medallion issued by Hadrian with a representation of the Temple of Matidia (here Fig. 3.7.6), as well as of three of the reliefs in the Palazzo dei Conservatori at Rome, originally from the Arch of Hadrian on the Via Flaminia/ Via Lata, which she has recently published (2014). This arch functioned as the entrance portal to the Hadrianeum and to the Precinct of Matidia, which, in my opinion, contained also another, so far anonymous Temple (of Sabina?). The first of the reliefs from the Arch of Hadrian shows the adventus of the Emperor in Rome (here Fig. 5.7), the second the apotheosis of Sabina (here Fig. 5.8), the third, the so-called adlocutio-relief (here Fig. 5.9), depicts instead, as M. Fuchs was able to show, Hadrian announcing his endowment of the Athenaeum at Rome.
Also Paolo Liverani in Rome has helped me tremendously in the course of researching the subjects discussed here, for almost every subject he generously added important information and references, or even sent me pdf-files: be that Edmund Buchner's excavations on the Campus Martius, the Carta Archeologica and all later map projects comprising the Campus Martius, the Tiber floods, the Arco del Portogallo and the question, whether or not that was a pomerium-gate, the pomerium of Claudius, the firing of the "cannone di
mezzogiorno", the horti of Domitia, who, instead of being Nero's aunt, turns out to have been Hadrians's mother, the Antinous Obelisk, the Hadrianic roundels at the Arch of Constantine and the question, whether or not this arch had already been erected by Hadrian, the recently found fragment 31 ll of the Severan Marble Plan, or the triumphal procession of Vespasian, Titus (and Domitian) of AD 71 (!).
My husband, Franz Xaver Schütz deserves, as usual, a very special recognition. He accompanied me on several trips to Rome, made many photographs for me there and in London, and granted me the permission to publish them. He has also helped me with all the other figures of this text, by providing me with publications, and by discussing with me all the subjects which appear in this book, especially those related to the topography, geology and geography of the area in question, thus contributing many important observations. In addition to all that, he has written a Contribution for this volume and was responsible for the production of the many pdf-files that were needed while preparing the book, and also the last one, after which the book was published free access on the Internet. Finally, Franz had the good idea that we should edit a new series, the FORTVNA PAPERS, in which this book has appeared.
Since I had been invited to give talks in February of 2016 at the Universities of Exeter, London and Cambridge, Franz and I made a trip to England, where we had the chance to meet again with my good friends Anne and Peter Wiseman in Exeter. Peter Wiseman has been helping me enormously with all my research projects since so many years now, and has saved me, also in this case, from many errors. At Exeter, we became acquainted with Matthew Wright and Barbara Borg; in Oxford we met with R.R.R. Smith, Nicholas Purcell and Helen Whitehouse; in London we met with Amanda Claridge, John Pearce, Nicoletta Bonansea, Dirk Booms, Thorsten Opper and Benjamin Harridge; and in Cambridge with Nigel Spivey, Andrew Wallace-Hadrill and John Patterson. Discussions with Nigel Spivey made me incorporate a section into this text about Livius' version of the Legend of Lucretia, as well as a Comment concerning similar recent events in Germany that we had been talking about in Cambridge. In the course of my subsequent email-correspondence with these friends and colleagues, Nicholas Purcell generously shared his thoughts with me and helped to shape and improve my manuscript, whereas Peter Wiseman, Bert Smith and Amanda Claridge were so kind as to contribute texts to this volume.
My thanks are also due to Marion Meyer, for inviting me to give a talk at the University of Vienna on the 12th of April 2016. On that occasion I met again with Walter Trillmich, who knew Edmund Buchner very well, and visited the excavation of his `Horologium Augusti´. He shared his thoughts about Buchner's finds and hypotheses with me, and took the time to write them down in a Comment for this book. Eric M. Moormann volunteered to edit my text and discussed it with me when we saw each other in Rome on 27th May 2016. He made for example the - very sound - suggestion to add a preface to it. We met at the Iseum Campense Conference May 2016, where Franz and I also saw again Frederick E. Brenk, Valentino Gasparini, Serena Ensoli, Rubina Raja, Katja Lembke and Alexander Heinemann and became acquainted with Miguel John Versluys, Alessandra Ten, Florian Ebeling, Stefan Pfeiffer and Nicola Barbagli. The discussions that we started at this Conference were pursued ever after, and became crucial for my manuscript. In addition to that, Frederick E. Brenck, Miguel John Versluys and Nicola Barbagli took the time to write texts for this volume.
Also other scholars deserve special recognition: Tonio Hölscher gave me the good advice to provide the reader with a summary concerning the mathematical/ astronomical calculations on which the construction of Augustus' Meridian device was based. Since I am not a specialist myself, I have quoted verbatim from such publications in Appendix 2 and have written chapter VII. SUMMARY: What is left of E. Buchner's hypotheses concerning his `Horologium Augusti´?, thus providing cross-references to all relevant discussions in the book. Hansgerd Hellenkemper, with whom I discussed his exhibition `TU FELIX AGRIPPINA´, that was on display at the Römisch-Germanisches Museum der Stadt Köln in 1996, and to which I refer in this book, had the good idea to edit my `Table of Contents´.
In addition, I sent my manuscript to some scholars who specialize in ancient militaria, Augustus, the topography of Rome, the application of GIS-technology to the studies of Roman topography, in numismatics and Egyptology, and was lucky enough that they too added comments and contributions to this book. These scholars are: Rose Mary Sheldon, John Pollini, Filippo Coarelli, Vincent Jolivet, Luca Sasso D'Elia, Angelo Geißen and Rafed El-Sayed. All of these texts are published in this book with the authors' generous consent. Franz and I were very happy that all of the here mentioned individuals supported our idea, and given the occasion for which this book was written, we found Raimund Wünsche's idea to contribute a text on Unsterblichkeit (`immortality´), especially kind and appropriate.
Special thanks go also to Dott.ssa Carlotta Caruso of the Museo Nazionale Romano at Rome, who helped me to acquire the photo of the Anaximander relief in this museum (here Fig. 12.2), and to Dott.ssa Rosanna Friggeri of the Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo - Soprintendenza Speciale per il Colosseo, il Museo Nazionale Romano e l'Area archeologica di Roma, who was so kind as to grant me the permission to publish it. Daria Lanzuolo of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Rom, Photoabteilung, was so kind as to help me with the photo of an unknown philosopher, formerly in the Antiquarium Comunale at Rome (here Fig. 12.3), and by checking a reference for me.
Francesca Deli, the Library Assistant of the British School at Rome, was so kind as to give us access to the book by Angelo Maria Bandini 1750, De Obelisco Caesaris Augusti e Campi Martii Ruderibus Nuper eruto Commentarius ... and to make a scan of one of its etchings for us that shows a reconstruction of the Campus Martius in the Augustan period (cf. here Fig. 10.1). We also thank the Librarian of the British School at Rome, Valerie Scott, for generously granting us the permission to publish this image. My colleagues, Frau Maria Beck and Frau Andrea Beigel, the secretaries of the Lehrstuhl Schmude at the Department of Geography of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) München, were so kind as to provide me with library services. My thanks are also due to Frau Christa Kickbusch, the Librarian of the Archäologisches Institut of the LMU, and to Paul Scheding of the same Institute, both for lending me publications, and to Frau Rosa Galušić, likewise of the same Institute, for providing me with professional scans. As it happens, at the very end of my research, it became necessary to consult still another article that I had neglected until that very moment. Fortunately Christopher Dargel of the Institut für Ägyptologie und Koptologie of the LMU found this publication for me, in addition, he was so kind as to he make a photocopy of this text for me. Needless to say, that I am very grateful for his help. Even after that reached us the Festschrift for Lawrence Richardson, Jr., edited by Mary T. Boatwright and Harry B. Evans 1998 - my truly heartfelt thanks are due to the `Fernleihteam´ of the Hochschule München, who actually managed to provide us with this book, that came to us all the way from the `American University of Rome Library´ in Rome.
The way I have approached the subjects of this book was, of course, influenced by discussions with the individuals mentioned above, but also by the historic novel Ekkehard by Joseph Victor von Scheffel, a copy of which I found, serendipitously, in the excellent library of the late Ruth Lucy Toepffer. But my acknowledgments do not stop here. Bernard Frischer, who allowed me to quote from his contributions to his multi-authored article `New Light on the Relationship between the Montecitorio Obelisk and Ara Pacis of Augustus´ ahead of publication (in the meantime this article has appeared), and kindly agreed that I also ask his (other) co-authors, whom I have quoted, whether or not they allow me to publish their thoughts ahead of their own publications, also deserves special recognition. These scholars are: Karl Galinsky, John F. Miller, Jackie Murray, John Pollini, Michele Salzmann and Molly Swetnam-Burland. All of them kindly agreed.
In March of 1999, the then Sovraintendente ai Beni Culturali of the Comune di Roma, Prof. Eugenio La Rocca, had generously provided Franz Xaver Schütz and me with the official photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now Roma Capitale) for our research projects, on the basis of which our Rome maps have been drawn since then. In February of 2014, the Sovraintendente ai Beni Culturali of Roma Capitale, Dr. Claudio Parisi Presicce, kindly renewed this contract, granting us also the permission to publish the photogrammetric data themselves, even on the internet (cf. here Figs. 3.5-3.10 and Figs. 3; 4; 6 and 7 in the Contribution by Franz Xaver Schütz in this volume).
Our good friend John Pollini deserves the place of honour in my acknowledgments, because, apart from discussing with me many of the ideas published here, he had alerted Franz and me to the fact that Bernard Frischer would give the talk in Munich mentioned below.
Last but not least I thank my good friends Rose Mary Sheldon and T.P. Wiseman, as well as my colleague Gordon M. Winder, who were not only so generous as to revise the English of (different) parts of my text, but who have also discussed it with me.