Die Karte von C. Häuber (2014, Map 3), korrigiert und erweitert; im Buch von C. Häuber über Domitian, FORTVNA PAPERS III, heißt diese Karte `Fig. 71´.
Die folgenden Textpassagen stammen aus dem Appendix I in C. Häubers Buch über Domitian (FORTVNA PAPERS III). In diesem Appendix ist von einer berühmten Episode des Bürgerkriegs im `Vierkaiserjahr´ 69 n. Chr. die Rede: der Flucht des 18jährigen Domitian am 19. Dezember 69 n. Chr. vom Kapitolshügel. Domitian befand sich zu diesem Zeitpunkt dort, weil sich sein Onkel, der praefectus urbi Flavius Sabinus, vor den Vitellianern dorthin geflüchtet hatte. Am 19. Dezember 69 wurde der Tempel des Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus in Brand gesteckt. Domitian und wenige weitere Flavier konnten sich (teils durch Verkleidungen) retten, die meisten übrigen Flavier starben.
Bei Teil I des folgenden Textes handelt es sich um die Diskussion einer Korrektur auf meiner Map 3 meiner Publikation von 2014 (jetzt Fig. 71). Diese Korrektur bezieht sich auf den Lucus Fagutalis. In meiner Publikation von 2014 war ich der älteren Literatur gefolgt, die das Toponym `Fagutal´ irrtümlich als Bezeichnung einer Hügelkuppe aufgefaßt hatte, wobei der Fagutal, ebenso wie der Mons Oppius, angeblich eine Anhöhe des Esquilins gewesen sei. In Wirklichkeit handelt es sich bei dem Toponym `Fagutal´ um einen heiligen Hain mit Namen `Lucus Fagutalis´, der sich auf dem Mons Oppius befand, und den man meines Erachtens genau lokalisieren kann.
In Teil II des folgenden Textes werden Passagen zitiert, in denen beschrieben wird, warum sich der praefectus urbi Flavius Sabinus am 18. Dezember 69 n. Chr. auf den Kapitolshügel begeben hatte, sowie zur Flucht Domitians vom Kapitol am 19. Dezember 69. Die Schilderung dieser Ereignisse habe ich zum Anlass genommen, meine Map 3 (jetzt Fig. 71) deutlich nach Westen zu erweitern, so dass sie nun das gesamte Forum Romanum umfasst, um ein sacellum auf dem Forum Romanum einzeichnen zu können, das mit dem mundus identifiziert wird, der auch umbilicus urbis genannt wurde. Und zwar aus folgendem Grund. An diesem sacellum, das sich vor dem Tempel des Saturn auf dem Forum Romanum befand, wurden am 19. Dezember die Opalia gefeiert, der Festtag der römischen Göttin Ops, der zu den Saturnalia gehörte. Saturn und Ops galten als göttliches Ehepaar, das auch mit Osiris und Isis identifiziert wurde.
Wir wissen, dass sich Domitian, mit den Gewändern eines Isiacus oder eines Isispriesters angetan, am 19. Dezember 69 n. Chr. auf dem Kapitolshügel einer Isisprozession angeschlossen hat, und dass er sich, dank dieser Verkleidung, retten konnte. Da der 19. Dezember jedoch kein Feiertag der Isisreligion ist, sondern der Festtag der römischen Göttin Ops, genannt Opalia, die mit Isis identifiziert wurde, schlage ich im Folgenden vor, dass diese Prozession, `an der nachweislich Isispriester teilgenommen hatten´, von den Priestern und Gläubigen des Tempels der Ops Opifera in Capitolio organisiert worden war. Und dass diese Prozession jedes Jahr am 19. Dezember von den Priestern der Ops Opifera in Capitolia, den Priestern der Isis deserta und den Priestern der Isis Capitolina organisiert wurde, um gemeinsam zum Forum Romanum zu gehen, wo sie dann an den Feierlichkeiten der Opalia teilgenommen haben
Dieser Tempel der Ops Opifera befand sich in der Area Capitolina, das heißt, im heiligen Bezirk des Tempels für Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus auf dem Capitolium, der südwestlichen Kuppe des Kapitolshügels; hinter diesem Opstempel befand sich ein Altar der Isis deserta. Wobei ich gleichfalls vorschlage, dass der aedituus (`Tempelwächter´), der Domitian in der Nacht vom 18. auf den 19. Dezember vor den belagernden Vitellianern versteckt hat, der Tempelwächter des Tempels des Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus war. Der Freigelassene dieses Tempelwächters sollte dann Domitian raten, am 19. Dezember, als Isispriester verkleidet, an dieser Isisprozession teilzunehmen und - das war das Entscheidende - dieser Freigelassene wußte natürlich auch, dass diese Prozession das Capitolium verlassen würde. Das Haus dieses Tempelwächters, in dem er Domitian versteckt hat, befand sich meines Erachtens innerhalb der Area Capitolina, unmittelbar südöstlich vom Jupitertempel.
Teil I - Der Lucus Fagutalis
C. Häuber, Textpassagen aus: FORTVNA PAPERS III:
Appendix I. The praefectus urbi T. Flavius Sabinus, Domitian's escape from the Capitolium on 19th December AD 69, which happened on the festival of the Opalia, one day of the Saturnalia, and the `Isis ship´, shown in the processions of the Saturnalia at Cologne
Appendix I.a); IV. The controversy concerning the location of the lucus Iovis Fagutalis,
within which stood the Domus of King Tarquinius Superbus
Following Filippo Coarelli's findings (2001 and now id. 2019a, 334-338, 344, 358), I maintain my hypotheses that the area of S. Pietro in Vincoli belonged to Regio IV, and that this was therefore not the area of the lucus Iovis Fagutalis (as believed by most scholars), because we know that the Vicus Iovis Fagutalis belonged to Regio III. This fact is explicitly recorded by the inscription CIL VI 452; cf. Häuber (2014a. 360-363). See now Coarelli (2019a, 336 with n. 160, quoted verbatim infra, in Section XI.).
I have further suggested that a supposed `old Vicus Iovis Fagutalis´ had (later) been covered by the artificial terrace, on which the Baths of Trajan were erected, and that this road was replaced by a [new] Vicus Iovis Fagutalis/ `Vicus Sabuci´, the current Via delle Sette Sale/ Viale del Monte Oppio, running parallal to the old street in the north. With the identification of the `Vicus Sabuci´ with the Vicus Iovis Fagutalis, and both with the (current) Via delle Sette Sale/ Viale del Monte Oppio, I have followed Domenico Palombi (1997, 33, 54, 61, 62, 66); cf. Häuber (2014a, 358 with n. 33). As we shall see below in Section XI., Coarelli (2019a, 337) identifies the `Vicus Iovis Fagutalis´ now with a different road (the Via Mecenate).
The Horti of Maecenas were in my opinion built in the area previously belonging to the former archaic Esquiline burial ground, and precisely in that part which was located inside and outside the Servian city Wall, to the south of the Porta Esquilina, and to the south of the Via Labicana-Praenestina; cf. Häuber (1983, 204-222). See the `Auditorium of Maecenas´, which `breaks through´ this city wall. At the same time these Horti covered the area of the former Republican Figlinae (a clay-pit and pertaining workshops, that is to say, "a potters' quarter on the Oppius"; cf. L. RICHARDSON Jr. 1992, 151). The (main) Domus of Maecenas within his Horti was, in my opinion, built at the former sites of the archaic lucus Iovis Fagutalis and of the Domus of King Tarquinius Superbus, which stood in the lucus Fagutalis that was reached by the road Clivus Pullius (cf. infra, at Sections V.; XI.)
Following Coarelli (2001, 25, Fig. 7; cf. id. 2019a, 351, Fig. 133), who identified (in 2001) the Clivus Pullius with the former Vicolo delle Sette Sale (which has also erroneously been identified with the Via in Figlinis, mentioned by Varro, Ling. 5,52), this road led to the area near the huge water cistern of the Baths of Trajan, called `Sette Sale´, in the area of which Coarelli convincingly then and now assumes the lucus Iovis Fagutalis. Surprisingly now Coarelli tentatively suggests the identification of the Clivus Pullius with the Via della Polveriera instead (cf. id. 2019a, 358 with n. 259, quoting Palombi 1993, 284-285). Coarelli thus does not consider the fact that this hypothesis contradicts his own location of the lucus Iovis Fagutalis - explicitly not at the hilltop of the Church of S. Pietro in Vincoli - but to which the Via della Polveriera leads. The alleged Domus of the mythical king Tarquinius Superbus stood in the lucus Iovis Fagutalis, to which the Clivius Pullius led (Solinus 1, 26). This alleged domus was, in my opinion, in reality an archaic settlement, parts of which have been uncovered in the excavations of the 20th century (cf. infra, at Section XII.).
It is possible to locate the lucus Fagutalis in the area of the `Sette Sale´ because of an analysis of Varro's (Ling. 5,45-54) description of the procession of the Argei on the Oppian, who mentions the lucus Iovis Fagutalis in this context, as Coarelli (2001 has shown, summarized in Häuber 2014a, 365-367, 386-394, map 9 [= the inserted box on here Fig. 71, at the bottom right). See also F. Coarelli: "Argei, Sacraria, Regio II - Esquilina 1. Oppius mons: princeps Esquiliis uls lucum Facutalem, sinistra via, secundum moerum est", in: LTUR I (1993) 123; and now Coarelli (2019a, 337 with n. 165).
But as we shall see below, there is much more evidence that should be considered in this context.
Coarelli (2019a, 334-337) does not discuss my reconstruction of the course the procession of the Argei took on the Mons Oppius (cf. infra, at Section XI.). Following Ǻ. Fridh (1987), Coarelli (2019a, 335 with n. 145) now convincingly suggests that `Fagutal´ was not a name of a hill - as most earlier scholoars had previously taken for granted, Coarelli and myself included - but that it was the name of a lucus (the lucus Iovis Fagutalis). Coarelli (2019a, 337), locates the lucus Fagutalis: "con tutta probabilità in un area prossima alle Sette Sale" - it was according to Varro (Ling. 5,50) the first sacrarium of the Esquiline, which the Argei visited in the course of their procession.
Concerning the location of the lucus Iovis Fagutalis `near the Sette Sale´, I agree with Coarelli (2019a, 337), but in regard to the precise location of the lucus Fagutalis, he comes to a different conclusion than myself (cf. infra, at Section XI.). I have elsewhere discussed Coarelli's two previous locations of the Fagutal; cf. Häuber (2014a, 360-363). At that time, Coarelli still assumed that `Fagutal´ was the name of a hilltop, which he located: 1.) near S. Martino ai Monti; and 2.) at the site of the later Baths of Trajan respectively (so F. COARELLI 2001, 25 with ns. 62, 63, Fig. 7).
The location of the lucus Iovis Fagutalis near the `Sette Sale´ is further corroborated by the existence of the above-mentioned archaic settlement in this area (cf. infra, at Section XII.), a fact that had previously been overlooked by all scholars, especially by those who located the Fagutal (understood as a hilltop) elsewhere; cf. Häuber (2014a, 392). Besides, the area near the `Sette Sale´ is much higher than that of S. Pietro in Vincoli, where those scholars have located the Fagutal (understood as a hilltop); we know that Jupiter was always worshipped on conspicuous heights; cf. Häuber (2014a, 365). - After I had written this Section so far, I realized that Coarelli (2019a, 335 with n. 145) follows now Fridh (1987), by convincingly suggesting that a thorough analyis of the relevant ancient literary sources has shown that `Fagutal´ was not the name of a hill, as previously taken for granted: only the existence of a lucus Iovis Fagutalis is recorded. Fridh (1987) could of course not discuss my new findings concerning the archaic settlement within the area (cf. infra, Section XII.), where Coarelli and I myself have already earlier assumed the hilltop Fagutal, comprising the data concerning the height above sea-level of the site in question. And because Coarelli (2019a, 334-337) does not himself discuss my relevant findings, only future studies, which consider also those data, will be able to say, how all this should be judged".
Teil II - Die Lokalisierung des sacellums Ops ad Forum auf dem Forum Romanum /des sacellums für Saturn und Ops / des sacellums für Dis Pater und Proserpina / beziehungsweise des mundus (auch umbilicus urbis genannt)
C. Häuber, Textpassagen aus: FORTVNA PAPERS III:
"Appendix I. The praefectus urbi T. Flavius Sabinus, Domitian's escape from the Capitolium on 19th December AD 69, which happened on the festival of the Opalia, one day of the Saturnalia, and the `Isis ship´, shown in the processions of the Saturnalia at Cologne
Appendix I.b) Domitian's escape from the Capitolium - Introduction ...
From Cassius Dio (64,17,1-4) we learn that (on 18th December AD 69), Flavius Sabinus and his men were on their way from his domus on the Quirinal to a meeting with Vitellius on the Palatine, in which they intended to urge Vitellius to abdicate. When they had just reached the Lacus Fundanus on the Quirinal, they were, out of a sudden, attacked by the Vitellians.
The domus of Flavius Sabinus stood on the Quirinal, it has been identified with remains of a domus, found at the Caserma dei Corazzieri in the vicinity of the Church of S. Susanna; cf. Häuber (2017, 160, for the recent discussion, quoted verbatim supra, in Chapter IV.1.1.a); cf. Chapters IV.1.1.h); V.1.i.3.a); Appendix I.g.3)). The Lacus Fundanus, which was filled by the Fons Cati, was located in the immediate vicinity of the Church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale, to the north-east of the crossroad of the Via XXIV Maggio and the Via Mazzarino.
Unarmed as Flavius Sabinus was (so Tac., Hist. 3,73,1), he fled with his men from the Vitellians to the Area Capitolina on the Capitolium, and in the night of the 18th his sons and Domitian were brought there too. Thus Flavius Sabinus and his men first found refuge in the sacred precinct of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus. And I also believe that he was later besieged there by the Vitellians. Contrary to Alexander Heinemann (2016, 220) I, therefore, do not find it surprising that Flavius Sabinus and his men were not at all prepared to be besieged on that day.
Contrary to all other recent scholars discussed here, I believe that we are explicitly told by Flavius Josephus (BJ 4,11,4) and by Suetonius (Vit. 15,3), where Flavius Sabinus and his men found refuge and where they were besieged, for the following reasons. When reporting on the fighting of the Vitellians with the Flavians on the morning of 19th December, Flavius Josephus, by referring to the Flavians, calls them "those that held the temple [translation: W. WHISTON 1737; thus obviously referring to the (second) Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Captolinus on the Capitolium proper]". This assumption is, in my opinion, corroborated by the way Suetonius (Vit. 15,3) describes the events discussed here, who reports the following. Vitellius, who was staying at that time at the `Domus Tiberiana´ on the Palatine, feasting, drove first of all the Flavians "in Capitolium", then ordered his `Vitellians´ to burn the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, and then watched the fighting of his `Vitellians´ with the Flavians and the burning of the temple.
The starting point of my research consisted of observations made by the Egyptologist Alfred Grimm (1997, 128), all of which (as I erroneously believed) had not as yet been considered by those scholars, who studied Domitian's escape from the Capitoline Hill so far. Grimm (1997, 128) rightly observed that the date of this escape, 19th December, is not a festival of Isis, but the day of the Opalia, celebrated in honour of the Roman goddess Ops, who could be equated with Isis. In addition to this, Grimm (1997, 128) expressed his disbelief that Domitian could have escaped by disguising himself as an Isiacus or as a priest of Isis, because of the precedent of Marcus Volusius (as I see now, this story was already known to A. HEINEMANN 2016, 209, n. 70). Elsewhere, Grimm (1997, 123) added the observation that the Saturnalia "erano altrettanto legati alle cerimonie isiache". In my opinion, this point is important in the context discussed here.
I have combined Grimm's observations (1997, 123, 128) with the following information: a) the results of my earlier research on the Area Capitolina, the sacred precinct of the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus on the Capitolium proper, which was surrounded by walls and had entrance gates that could be closed and were watched; b) my findings concerning the Temple of Ops Opifera in Capitolio ("la portatrice di aiuto" !; cf. J. ARONEN 1996, 36): most scholars (as I only realize now: convincingly) assume the Temple of Ops Opifera in Capitolio within the Area Captolina. For both subjects; cf. Häuber (2005, 18-50); c) T.P. Wiseman's mentioning (1978, 174, n. 49) of an altar, dedicated to Isis deserta behind the Temple of Ops Opifera within the Area Capitolina; d) Filippo Coarelli's kind explanation of Isis's epithet `deserta´ to me (meaning `abandoned´), which refers to the widowed and mourning Isis, who, after the assassination of her husband Osiris, is in search of him; and e) Franz Xaver Schütz's likewise very important observation that the festival of the Opalia on 19th December was part of the Saturnalia.
To all this I have added in the following text that the Opalia were celebrated at the sanctuary of the goddess Ops, called Ops ad Forum: this was a sacellum, dedicated to Saturnus and Ops, which was located in the Roman Forum, next to the Temple of Saturn, likewise called ad Forum. Both gods were regarded as spouses and Saturnus could be equated with Osiris, and Ops with Isis. Both gods were also equated with Dis Pater and Proserpina, and their sacellum, where the Opalia were celebrated, was regarded as the mundus.
The festival of the Saturnalia lasted from December 17th through the 23rd or 25th (depending, on which calendar one uses) and were inter alia celebrated with processions, which came from all over the city of Rome down to the Temple of Saturn in the Forum Romanum. I, therefore, suggest that Domitian, on 19th December AD 69, joined a procession, organized by the priests and adherents of Ops Opifera in Capitolio, those of Isis deserta, and possibly also those of Isis Capitolina, who went down to the sacellum of Ops ad Forum to join the celebrations of the Opalia. And because I follow the "orthodox view" (so T.P. WISEMAN 1978, 173 with n. 38) that Flavius Sabinus and his men (and later Domitian) found refuge on the Capitolium proper, within the Area Capitolina, I, therefore, believe that the aedituus, who saved Domitian by hiding him in his lodging, was the guardian of the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus. In my opinion, this explains why Domitian dedicated the sacellum and the temple, which he built as thanksgivings for his salvation, to Jupiter...
For some of the already above-mentioned toponyms, that are of importance in connection with the events that took place between the 18th and 21st December AD 69, on the Quirinal, the Palatine, the Capitoline Hill, the Arx and the Capitolium proper, the Velabrum and Trastevere, that will be discussed in detail in this Appendix I.; cf. here Fig. 58, labels: QUIRINAL; Servian city Wall; ALTA SEMITA; S. Susanna; Caserma dei Corazzieri; site of DOMUS: FLAVIUS SABINUS; Baths of DIOCLETIAN; site of DOMUS: VESPASIAN / TEMPLUM GENTIS FLAVIAE; COLLIS MUCIALIS; PORTA SANQUALIS; FONS CATI; S. Silvestro al Quirinale; CAPITOLINE; VELABRUM; TRANSTIBERIM; Fig. 59, labels: Palazzo del Quirinale; Fontana di Monte Cavallo; Palazzo della Consulta; Via XXIV Maggio; Via Mazzarino; Palazzo Pallavicini Rospigliosi; FONS CATI; Villa Colonna; Former Convent/ S. Silvestro al Quirinale; Figs. 71; 73-76, labels: ARX; S. Maria in Aracoeli/ site of Temple : ISIS CAPITOLINA; Fortifications / TEMPLUM : IUPPITER CUSTOS ? / AEDES : IUNO MONETA ?; FORUM ROMANUM; AEDES : SATURNUS / S. Salvatore de Statera; MUNDUS; CLIVUS CAPITOLINUS; CAPITOLIUM; TEMPLUM : IUPPITER OPTIMUS MAXIMUS; TEMPLUM : IUPPITER CUSTOS ?; Finds Tesoreria Comunale; PALATIUM; "DOMUS TIBERIANA"...
Appendix I.e) It is conceivable that Vitellius (cf. Suet., Vit. 15,3), on December 19th AD 69, could actually have watched the fighting on the Capitolium, while staying at the `Domus Tiberiana´ on the Palatine ...
I assume that the altar of the Temple of Divus Vespasianus was possibly integrated into the steps leading up to the temple. See the reconstruction drawings of this temple in LTUR V (1999, Figs. 70; 71): Fig. 71 gives the impression that in the middle of the steps - which in this reconstruction is left open - we could assume an altar. As I only realized after having written this down, Amanda Claridge (1998, 78-79, Figs. 22; 23; ead. 2010, 81-83, Figs. 22; 23) has already drawn the façade of the Temple of Divus Vespasianus, with an altar integrated into its steps at precisely that point.
Under one condition: because the space in front of the Temple of Divus Vespasianus was used for a great variety of purposes, the organizers of whatever public event intended to use it for, were forced to come to relevant agreements amongst each other. - See the site plan in LTUR IV (1999) Fig. 109, "da P. Pensabene, Tempio di Saturno (1984) 6 Fig. 1", which shows the Temple of Divus Vepasianus, the Clivus Capitolinus and the Temple of Saturn together.
To give you only two examples. On that day, for which the priests of the Temple of Divus Vespasianus had scheduled one of their ceremonies it was certainly impossible to celebrate a triumph, and that for the following reason. Since the Temple of Divus Vespasianus had been erected, the final phase of this procession, whatever course through town the triumphator might have chosen, would march along on the Clivus Capitolinus in front of this temple on its way to its final destination, the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus on the Capitolium.
Another occasion, at which the priests of the Temple of Divus Vespasianus could not possible have planned a large gathering of people for a ceremony in front of their temple, were the festivals of the Saturnalia (from 17th until 23rd or 25th December), and especially of one of them, the Opalia (on 19th December). The Opalia were celebrated at a cult place called Ops ad Forum, close to the Temple of Saturnus, because Saturnus and Ops (who could be equated with Osiris, Dionysus/ Serapis and with Isis) were regarded as spouses. The space discussed here, in front of the Temple of Divus Vespasianus, was, therefore, at the same time the space in front of the Temple of Saturn and of the mundus close to the Temple of Saturn. The Temple of Saturn and the mundus, the sacellum of Dis Pater and Proserpina (who could likewise be equated with Saturn and Ops), were the centres of the celebrations at the Saturnalia and at the Opalia.
For all that; cf. infra, at Appendix I.f) The procession, which Domitian joined, the festival of the Opalia on 19th December, the Saturnalia, the festival of Fors Fortuna on 24th June, and the `Isis ship´, shown in the processions of the Saturnalia at Cologne; at Appendix II.a); and at Appendix IV.b.2.).
Cf. Figs. 71; 73, labels: CAPITOLIUM; CLIVUS CAPITOLINUS; AEDES: DEI CONSENTES; "TABULARIUM"; TEMPLUM: DIVUS VESPASIANUS; AEDES: CONCORDIA; ARCUS: SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS; ROSTRA; AEDES: SATURNUS / S. Salvatore de Statera; MUNDUS; FORUM ROMANUM...
Appendix I.f) The procession, which Domitian joined, the festival of the Opalia on 19th December, the Saturnalia, the festival of Fors Fortuna on 24th June, and the `Isis ship´, shown in the processions of the Saturnalia at Cologne
Appendix I.f.1.) The procession, which Domitian joined, the festival of the Opalia on 19th December, the Saturnalia, and the festival of Fors Fortuna on 24th June ...
Michael York (1986, 187-198, in his chapter "December") discusses the meanings of the Consualia, the Saturnalia, and of the Divalia (or Angeronalia). He is not only able to explain the inversion-rituals of the Saturnalia in a convincing way, he also provides information concerning the festival of the Divalia that can explain why `the Isis ship´ joined the procession of the Saturnalia at Cologne (cf. infra, at Appendix I.f.2)), and why, as I suggest here, the priests and adherents of Isis Capitolina and of Isis deserta followed on 19th December a procession, organized by the priests of Ops in Capitolio.
Cf. York (1986, 191): "[Franz] Altheim feels that the significance of the Consualia [on 15th December] in December would relate to the ritual ending of the solar year [with n. 495]. On the basis of Consus' name, the old year would now be formally buried or hidden [my emphasis]". In his note 495, York writes: "Altheim (1938) pp. 196 f.".
For the subterranean altar of Consus at the Circus Maximus; cf. Paola Ciancio Rossetto: "Consus, Ara", in: LTUR I (1993) 322: "Uno dei più antichi culti della città, localizzato nella valle tra Palatino e Aventino, è quello di Conso: proiettato nel secondo millennio a.C. e istituito dagli Arcadi (Dion. Hal. 1.33.2), oppure fondato da Romolo in occasione della scoperta dell'altare del dio e celebrato in feste - i Consualia - durante le quali avvenne il ratto delle Sabine (Dion. Hal. 2.31.2-3 ...) ...
La divinità ha caratteristiche ctonie e agricole, ben evidenti queste ultime nel tipo di manifestazioni che caratterizzavano i Consualia: corse di cavalli, corse di carri, corse a piedi e salti sulle pelli di bue unte, inoltre gli animali da lavoro erano lasciati in libertà e incoronati con fiori ...
Il suo altare era sotterraneo (Tert. spect. 8.6) e veniva scoperto solo nei giorni in cui si celebravano i ludi ... L'altare di Conso costituiva uno degli angoli pomeriali del Palatino (Tac. ann. 12.24) ... [my emphasis]".
Cf. Häuber (2014a, 873-874, map 3 [= here Fig. 71, top right], inserted box: Map of archaic Rome, within its later city walls, reconstruction, labels: PALATINE site of ROMULUS' ROMA QUADRATA; CIRCUS MAXIMUS; site of ARA: CONSUS ?).
Cf. York (1986, 192): "... this essential upward movement to be traced in one manner or another within the solstitial feriae continues past the Consualia and into the renowned Saturnalia ... the commemoration of the golden age [with n. 496].
The Saturnalia is both proverbial for and a prototype of the idea of carnival. This is now a time of reversal, a time beyond time, since the solar saeculium has been ended on the Consualia [15th of December] but the solstice [on the 21st or 23rd December] is yet to come ...".
Cf. York (1986, 193): "... the Saturnalian ceremonies and practices have been since the earliest of time connected to the rebirth of the sun and the attendant dangers therewith [my emphasis]. The exchange of gifts - in particular the cerei or wax tapers, the sigillaria or earthenware figures reminiscent of the oscilla, and strenae or boughs covered with sweetmeats and dried fruits [with n. 499] are customs which are still to be detected in modern-day yule and Christmas celebrations. But the most significant aspect of the Saturnalia and its three, five or seven day extension is the general reversal of behavior [with n. 500]. In Rome, slaves were served by their masters, the restrictive but normally indispensable toga was replaced by the more comfortable synthesis, schools and courts were closed, and war and the punishment of criminals were interrupted [with n. 501; my emphasis]. All of these along with the holiday atmosphere [with n. 502] are expressive of the freedom or necessity for freedom during this inter tempus - a point which may have been ritually indicated by the removal of the woolen fillets that normally were wound around the feet of Saturnus' statue [with n. 503] ...".
Cf. York (1986, 193-194): "The legend in which Saturnus arrives in Latium to become its first king has him greeted and welcomed by Janus before settling on the Capitoline hill ... Janus is associated with the Janiculum ... whereas Saturnus becomes the lord of the Capitoline. Varro, in fact, tells us that the hill was originally known as the Mons Saturnus and that the settlement there was called Saturnia [with n. 506, quoting: "Varr. L. L. 5.42".] The reign of this revered king and first civilizer was the golden age of Italy - ending when Saturnus himself mysteriously disappeared [with n. 507; my emphasis].
In his notes 496-506, York provides ancient literary sources.
T.P. Wiseman (2019, 56), discussing Varro (De lingua Latina 5,5), explains, why Saturnus ended up in Rome:
"Varro makes a point of citing written sources, and yet he is conspicuously silent on the reason some of those sources must have given for the name mons Saturnius. It's a story we know from Virgil and Ovid: the god Saturn, expelled from Olympus by his son Jupiter's coup d'état, established himself on the hill that would one day be the Capitol, and brought the local inhabitants together under the rule of law".
Cf. York (1986, 195): "Saturnus' temporary reign which begins with the 17th [of December] and ends with the solstice on the 21st or 23rd is a momentary release from the normal cycle of the year. It is an extra time; an ephemeral return to the golden age of freedom, joy and non-distinction".
Cf. York (1986, 194-198), where he discusses the complex relationships of the divinities Consus, Saturn and Ops; cf. pp. 164-165 with ns. 381-387 (for Ops). Cf. p. 195: "Under the discussion of Ops and her identity with Fauna and Maia, we have indicated the chthonian nature which is a regular aspect of the earth mother. In this respect, Ops shares a similarity in function with Saturnus, with whom she is connected [my emphasis]".
No wonder then that Ops could be equated with Isis; cf. Paul G.P. Meyboom (2016, 58), who quotes Plutarch (De Is. et Os. 38; cf. supra, at Chapter IV.1.1.e)):
`Just as they view the Nile as the efflux of Osiris, thus they hold the earth to be the body of Isis, not the whole earth, but as much as the Nile goes over, fructifying it and uniting with it; and from this union they assume Horus to be procreated [my emphasis]´.
Michal York (1986, 195) writes: "That a sacellum of Dis Pater adjoined or was close to Saturnus' temple at the foot of the Capitolium [with n. 516]". In his note 516, he says that Saturn was also related to Dis Pater.
According to Filippo Coarelli (2019a, 21-22) Saturnus was not only `related´ to Dis Pater, as York (1986, 195, n. 516) writes, he was rather identified with him, and adds that Saturnus' wife, the goddess Ops (who could be equated with Isis), was therefore identified with Dis Pater's parhedros, Proserpina. - The following passage will be discussed below in its wider topographical context of the Forum Romanum (cf. infra, at Appendix IV.b.2.)):
Coarelli (2019a, 21-22) writes: "1. Aerarium Saturni
La sede del tesoro dello stato (Aerarium publicum populi Romani) [with n. 1] era ospitata fin dall'inizio nel Tempio di Saturno (fig. 2), che alcune fonti antiche collocano nell'area del Foro. Si tratta in realtà di un'opinione minoritaria, perché l'edificio era piuttosto collegato al Campidoglio, ed è infatti localizzato ad Forum tanto da Varrone [with n. 2] che dai calendari epigrafici [with n. 3] ...
Il centro del culto originario era un altare antichissimo, identificabile con una struttura, in parte tagliata nella roccia, un tempo ritenuta il Volcanal [with n. 7] (fig. 3). Accanto ad esso si trova la costruzione cilindrica, in cui nel IV secolo d.C. si riconosceva l'Umbilicus Romae [with n. 8] (figg. 4-5) ... Un passo di Macrobio, di ascendenza ancora una volta [page 22] varroniana, permette di riconoscervi il Mundus, definito sacellum Ditis patris et Proserpinae, che era arae Saturni cohaerens [with n. 10] ...".
Cf. p. 24: "L'identificazione del Mundus con un sacello di Dis Pater e Proserpina, testimonianza di una precoce ellenizzazione del culto di Saturno e Ops, con i quali le due divinità infere palesemente si identificano, rimanda al carattere ctonio e agrario del culto di Saturno e della sua paredros [i.e., Ops; with n. 21]. È questa caratteristica che spiega la scelta del santuario come sede del `` tesoro´´ del popolo romano, l'Aerarium [my emphasis]".
The caption of Coarelli's Fig. 2 reads: "Area circostante al Tempio di Saturno (da PENSABENE 1984)".
The caption of his Fig. 3 reads: "Pianta dei Rostra con l'ara Saturni (7) e l'Umbilicus urbis (8).
The caption of his Fig. 4 reads: "Assonometria dell'area compresa tra il Tempio di Saturno e l'Arco di Settimio Severo. Al centro, i Rostra, l'ara Saturni e l'Umbilicus".
The caption of his Fig. 5 reads: "Umbilicus urbis: cornici con fregio ionico al monopteros circolare (in basso) e alla base di una statua (sopra)".
In his note 1, Coarelli writes: "CORBIER 1974".
In his note 2, he writes: "Varro, de sacris aedibus 6 (in Macrob., sat. 1.8.1): ``aedem Saturni ad Forum´´".
In his note 3, he writes: "Fast. Amit. : ``Saturn(o) ad for(um)´´: DEGRASSI 1963, pp. 538-540".
In his note 7, he writes: "COARELLI 1976-1977; COARELLI 1983, pp. 199-226; COARELLI 2012, pp. 185-189; LTUR IV, p. 236 (F. Coarelli); CALISTI 2007".
In his note 10, he writes: "Macr., sat. 1.7, 30 s.; 11.48; 16.16; 18".
In his note 21, he writes: "Macr. 1.10.18: ``Hanc autem deam Opem Saturni coniugem crediderunt et ideo hoc mense Saturnalia idemque Opalia celebrari, quod Saturnus eiusque uxor tam frugum quam fructuum repertores esse credantur´´(``Si riteneva che questa dea, Ops, fosse la moglie di Saturno e che quindi in questo mese si celebrassero sia i Saturnalia che gli Opalia, poiché Saturno e sua moglie erano ritenuti essere gli scopritori dei frutti´´); Fest., p. 202 L.: ``ab Ope, Saturni uxore´´. Su Ops, si veda più avanti [cf. pp. 47-66, section: "4. Aerarium militare". For a discussion of that; cf. supra, at Appendix I.d.2.)].
The architectural structure, in my opinion convincingly referred to by Coarelli (2019a, 22) as mundus (cf. here Fig. 71, labels: FORUM ROMANUM; ROSTRA; MUNDUS; AEDES: SATURNUS ), and as the sacellum of Dis Pater (Saturnus) and Proserpina (Ops), is identified differently, for example (erroneously) as the miliarium aureum and (correctly) as the umbilicus urbis.
Cf. Zaccaria Mari ("Miliarium Aureum", in: LTUR III  250-251, Fig. 173), who states that the miliarium aureum (i.e., the monopteros, identified by Coarelli 2019a, 22 with the mundus instead, and in late antiquity with the umbilicus urbis) stands to the north of the (Caesarian) Rostra and between that Rostra and the Arch of Septimius Severus.
Cf. Lawrence Richardson Jr. (1992, 404: "Umbilicus Romae: probably to be identified with the Milliarium Aureum (q.v.) [cf. p. 254, s.v. Milliarium Aureum] ..."), writes: "An attempt by F. Coarelli to identify this monument with the Mundus (2) (q.v.) is not convincing (DialArch 9-10 [1976-77]; 34677, especially 357-73); his identification of the Ara Saturni is of doubtful value for the topography of other monuments in the Forum Romanum".
Cf. Coarelli ("MUNDUS", in: LTUR III  288-289, Figs. 173, 187). In this entry, Coarelli identifies (on p. 289) the ara Saturni with that archaic structure, which was earlier identified as the Volcanal. As an explanation of his Figs. 173 (also referred to by Mari, op.cit.) and 187, a section of the same structure, Coarelli writes on p. 289: "L'attuale Umbilicus ["Figg. 173, 187"] è una ricostruzione di età severiana, che aveva però riuttilizzato gli elementi di una fase precedente, della fine del II. sec. a.C. (ancora conservati nelle vicinanze) che dovevano costituirne la parte superiore, a forma di monopteros circolare ...". The plan of this monopteros is visible on the pertaining Fig. 173.
For the location of the mundus/ the sacellum of Dis Pater (Saturnus) and Proserpina (Ops) - by other scholars referred to as umbilicus urbis or as miliarium aureum; cf. LTUR I (1993) 469, Fig. 182: "Comitium e area circostante in età tardo-repubblicana .... (da Coarelli, Foro Romano I  fig. 39)", labels: AEDES SATURNI; ARA SATURNI; MUNDUS; AEDES CONCORDIAE". - The mundus and the altar of Saturnus are located to the north-east of the Temple of Saturnus and immediately adjacent to each other, the mundus to the east of the altar of Saturnus, and both right in front of the Aedes Concordiae and very close, and to the west of the Comitium.
For the location of the umbilicus urbis; cf. Amanda Claridge (1998, 60, Fig. 1: "Roman Forum. General site plan), labels 11 ["Temple of Concordia Augusta"]; 14 ["Temple of Saturn]; 17 ["Caesarian Rostra"]; 18 ["Umbilicus Urbis"]"; = ead. 2010, 62, Fig. 1.
For the area, within which the mundus/ the sacellum of Dis Pater (Saturnus) and Proserpina (Ops) is located; cf. here Figs. 71; 73, labels: AEDES: SATURNUS; AEDES: CONCORDIA; ROSTRA; MUNDUS; ARCUS: SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. - The mundus is the small circular structure immediately to the west of the southernmost pylon of the Arch of Septimius Severus, and immediately to the north of the Republican Rostra, which is marked (but not labelled) on the map SAR 1985, after which I have drawn it on our maps.
Contrary to Mari (1996, 250-251) and Richardson Jr. (1992, 404), Coarelli (1990, 79; cf. id. 2003, 75-76; id. 2008, 70) does not identify the umbilicus urbis with the miliarium aureum.
Coarelli (2008, 70) writes:
"Simmetricamente all'Umbilicus, all'altra estremità dell'emiciclo dei Rostri inperiali, si trovava il Miliarium Aureum, (il ``miliario d'oro´´), piccolo monumento eretto da Augusto nel 20 a.C. per indicare l'ideale punto di partenza delle strade romane, che da qui si diramavano per tutto l'Impero. Su di esso era indicata la distanza tra Roma e le principali città. Resti della colonna, originariamente rivestita di bronzo dorato, e della sua base in marmo bianco, decorata con palmette, sono ancora visibili davanti al Tempio di Saturno.
Il Miliarium aureum faceva da pendant all'Umbilicus: il centro del mondo romano, cioè, si contrapponeva simbolicamente all'centro dell'urbe. Ma è quest'ultimo [i.e., the umbilicus urbis], certamente più antico, che era servito di modello al primo [i.e., the miliarium aureum], e non viceversa".
On the pertinent map of the Roman Forum; cf. Coarelli (2008, 44-45), the Temple of Concordia (3), the Arch of Septimius Severus (6), the Caesarian/Augustan Rostra (8), The altar of Saturnus and the umbilicus urbis (7), and the temple of Saturnus (10) are marked, but not the miliarium aureum.
The only plan known to me, on which the miliarium aureum is marked, is the following:
Klaus Stefan Freyberger (2009, 12-13, "Abb. 1 Gesamtplan mit Verzeichnis der bekannten Bauten) locates the "29: Umbilicus Urbis (Mundus)" between the northeast end of "28 Rostra Iulia" and the southernmost pylon of "37: Bogen des Septimus Severus", and the "30: Milliarium Aureum" to the north of "32: Tempel des Saturn". See also his plans p. 28 "Abb. 15 Comitium republikanische Phase, schematischer Lageplan [= Coarelli, Foro Romano I 1983, Fig. 39; LTUR I (1993) 469, Fig. 182]", labels: 9 [Tempel der Concordia]; 10 [Tempel des Saturn] 11 [Mundus]; 12 [Altar des Saturn]. See also his plans p. 30, Abb. 16, p. 63, Abb. 42, and p. 96, Abb. 64.
Because Stefan Freyberger's plan (2009, 12-13, "Abb. 1") is not measured, I have refrained from integrating his location of his "30: Milliarium Aureum", which he locates to the north of his "32: Tempel des Saturn", into our maps.
To the sacellum of Dis Pater (Saturnus) and Proserpina (Ops), the mundus close to the Temple of Saturn, we will come back below, since Marina De Franceschini and Giuseppe Veneziano (2019, 8) write:
"On Winter Solstice there was instead the feast of Saturnalia, dedicated to Dionysos, who was later identified with Osiris, husband of Isis [my emphasis]".
Besides, those identifications of Dionysos with Osiris on the one hand, and of Saturnus via Dionysos (Dis Pater) with Osiris on the other hand, did not happen by chance, given in the case of the latter by Saturnus' close connection with the winter solstice: Osiris was after all identified with the Sungod. I have written elsewhere:
"Michel Malaise [with n. 128] follows those who believe that the ``Tauchbad´´ [i.e., part of the initiation rituals into the Isis mysteries] was a symbol for the `voluntary death´ which the initiand underwent. The priest, with whom Lucius discusses his initiation before he and this priest are actually ordered by Isis `herself´ to perform it, explicitly calls the initiation into the Isiac mysteries a `voluntary death´ (Apuleius, Met. 11, 21; cf. 22-23). This ``Tauchbad´´ symbolized `death´, and hence apotheosis by drowning [with n. 129], through which the initiand became Osiris. Osiris was identified with the Sun god, therefore Lucius, who appeared on the morning following his nocturnal initiation ``paraît revêtu de douze robes de consécration´´ [with n. 130] and crowned with the rays of the Sun god, enacted or actually was Osiris [with n. 131; my emphasis]". Cf. Häuber (2014a, 757-758; cf. p. 743).
On my note 128, I wrote: "Malaise 1972b, p. 230".
Cf. note 129: "The most famous example being Antinoos, although his death in the Nile in 130 AD is interpreted by modern commentators in various ways; cf. Mari 2008, p. 122".
Cf. note 130: "Malaise 1972b, p. 231, referring to (Apuleius, Met. 11, 23); p. 234 with ns. 4, 5: ``Wittmann a essayé de montrer que plusieurs données recouvraient des réalitées égyptiennes. Les douze stolae que porte Lucius correspondraient aux douze zones de la nuit, – une per heure, – que le myste a symboliquement traversée: l'initié parcourrait le Douat, comme le soleil, pour renaître au matin´´, referring to Apuleius, Met. 11, 24".
Cf. note 131: "Malaise 1972b, p. 168 with n. 2: ``L’initiation fait du myste un nouvel Osiris [my emphasis]´´; cf. Bommas 2005a, p. 316".
Cf. York (1986, 197-198): "We cannot be certain whether the Latin yuletide as an originally feriae conceptivae period could have been fixed to a solstice falling on the Divalia or the Larentalia. After Caesar's reform, the turning point of the sun coincided with 25 December [with n. 531], which fact allowed this date to be subsequently selected for the celebration of the Sol Invictus as well as the birthdays of Mithras and Christ. The traditional midwinter's is 21 December, and the solstice today so falls that the night of 21-22 December is thus the longest of the year [with n. 532; my emphasis]".
In his note 531, York writes: "Mommsen 1859, p. 259".
In his note 532, he writes: "Note also Mommsen's reconstruction of the additamenta in Praen. which indicates the Divalia as the day of the winter solstice [my emphasis]".
We have heard above from Marina De Franceschini and Giuseppe Veneziano (2011, 55-56): "Macrobio (V sec. d. C.) nella sua opera Saturnalia, riferisce però che in origine la festa durava un solo giorno, il 19 dicembre, ma era talmente popolare che fu ampliata da Giulio Cesare con la riforma del calendario".
Taken that together with the passage from Michael York (1986, 197), just quoted: "After Caesar's reform, the turning point of the sun coincided with 25 December", - we can state that it was - of course ! - Julius Caesar, who, with his brilliant calendar reform (in the course of which he had added `extra days´ to the previous calendar) had created with the now much longer Saturnalia "the merriest festival of the year", as John Scheid (1996, 1360) writes.
For Caesar's calendar reform; cf. infra, n. 545, at Appendix II.c).
Cf. York (1986, 198): "The Fasti Antiates Maiores and Ostienses list larea permarina as additamenta to the Divalia [with n. 535: "Ost. & Praen. list laribus permarinis in connection with 22 December".] and here is one of the clearest chthonic links. The association of the protectors of sea-travellers with this day, however, may possibly have been the result of imported Egyptian ideas of the solar barque and the rebirth of the sun at this time [with n. 536; my emphasis]. Macrobius mentions Angerona's image as placed on the altar of Volupia (from voluptas `joy´) [with n. 537] and this could be a further indication of solstitial thankfulness. If Angerona's true significance has to do with the return of the sun, her association, if not ultimate identity, with the goddess of delight and happiness is only fitting [my emphasis]".
In his note 535, York writes: "The inclusion of the lares on the Divalia may also reflect a vestige of the Compitalia, which occur at this time. See text below and also note 543".
In his note 536, he writes: "See Chapter IV p. 41. The date of the Compitalia could fall somewhere between the Saturnalia and the Nones of January ... [providing a reference; my emphasis]".
In his note 537, he writes: "Masurinus ap Macr. Sat. 1.10.8 ... [quoting further ancient literary sources]".
York (1986, 198), in the just quoted passage, writes that the lares permarini, "the protectors of sea-travellers", were connected with the Divalia (or Angeronalia), that festival of the Saturnalia which, as Mommsen has suggested, was celebrated on the day of the winter solstice. York himself explains this as follows: "However, [this] may possibly have been the result of imported Egyptian ideas of the solar barque and the rebirth of the sun at this time [my emphasis]".
To summarize York's (1986) findings:
I believe that we can assume that the just mentioned beliefs of the Egyptians, that were connected with the `solar barque and the rebirth of the sun at the winter solstice´, could have been the reason, why a) `the Isis ship´ was exhibited at the processions of the Saturnalia at Cologne (cf. infra, at Appendix I.f.2)); and b), why the procession of followers of Ops in Capitolio who, as I suggest here, went down each 19th December to attend the Opalia at Ops ad Forum, was regularly joined by the priests and adherents of Isis Capitolina and of Isis deserta. - Thus saving Domitian on 19th December AD 69, who left the Capitolium together with them".
last update: 14.8.2022
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